World Bank Academy

June 9, 2018 Leave a comment

World Bank Academy

worldbank.org

10.06.2018

Online Educational Course “e-Procurement Learning”

This e-Learning course is designed to provide participants with an in-depth understanding of the concept of public procurement and e-Government Procurement (e-GP) and how e-Procurement solutions can be designed and implemented in a more effective and economical way. This course outlines how to prepare a strategy for establishing an e-GP framework and presents in detail basic and advanced tools of e-Procurement systems. Moreover, it describes the need for the establishment and use of public procurement indicators, as well as how public financial management can be strengthened through the incorporation of procurement and e-Procurement into PFM reform projects.

Course overview

E-Government procurement (e-GP) projects are often part of the wider e-government efforts of countries to efficiently and effectively serve their citizens and businesses. E-GP promotes better governance in public procurement by increasing transparency and eliminating opportunities for fraud and corruption. The application of ICT to procurement processes has resulted in e-Procurement platforms that are ideally suited to address the e-GP objectives.

Pursuing an e-Procurement system implementation is an effective way to improve public procurement management, through the automation of all underlying processes. Many governments worldwide have adopted end-to-end e-Procurement systems which cover the full procurement cycle.

The current e-Learning course is composed of five modules, aiming to assist its audience to better understand electronic procurement and provide them with guidance on decisions they may need to take for establishing or improving the e-GP framework of their countries.

The course initially focuses on how organizations can establish a plan for an e-GP implementation, and what benefits can be expected by such an implementation project. Furthermore it provides an overview of the basic and advanced features and modules of e-Procurement systems, along with concise information on how to implement each of the described e-Procurement modules.

Additionally, the course briefly describes e-Procurement indicators and presents how these can be used by governments in order to measure adoption, performance and overall governance. Lastly, it focuses on how to incorporate procurement and e-procurement into FMIS implementations in the context of PFM reform projects.

At the end of this course, a certification can be obtained by those participants who complete the course and successfully pass the respective examination.

Course features

The course is composed of the following modules:

  • e-Procurement Preparation
  • e-Procurement Basics
  • Advanced e-Procurement
  • e-Procurement Indicators
  • Incorporating e-Procurement into Public Financial Management (PFM) reforms

Target audience

This e-Learning course is designed for the clients of the World Bank (stakeholders of public sector organizations) who wish to strengthen their knowledge on the e-GP concept. Learners can get an in-depth view on how to pursue a successful e-GP implementation and e-Procurement system features in order to effectively cover the whole public procurement cycle.

The learners should at least have an understanding of the national public procurement setting and the EU public procurement procedures as well as a high-level view of web-based applications and software implementation projects.

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Certificate

Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, NZ

June 5, 2018 Leave a comment

Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, NZ

www.procurement.govt.nz

05.06.2018

Online Educational Course “Demystifying Procurement”

Demystifying Procurement is an introductory online course that gives you tools and techniques to help you with your procurement.

This introductory course is especially useful for:

  • non-procurement specialists with responsibility for managing or undertaking procurement or with a general interest in procurement
  • anyone new to a procurement-related role
  • procurement specialists wanting to update themselves on best practice.

Course outline

This free introductory training course covers the eight stages of the procurement life-cycle in four short modules.

By the end of the course you should have an understanding of:

  • specifying and eliciting business requirements
  • market analysis tools and techniques
  • developing a procurement plan
  • selecting the right procurement approach
  • approaching the supply market
  • evaluating and selecting suppliers that deliver the greatest value for money
  • negotiating and contracting
  • managing and reviewing supplier relationships
  • what to do when things go wrong in the relationship.

There are four self-paced modules with interactive graphics and tables, links to procurement tools and guidance on this website and practice questions at the end of each section.

Module 1: Plan (part 1)

Module 1 covers the project initiation, needs and market analysis sections of the planning phase. The module will take you through identifying and understanding key stakeholders and their needs, putting together a project team, probity considerations and understanding the supply market.

Module 1 should take about 30 minutes to complete.

Module 2: Plan (part 2)

Module 2 covers the specification of requirements and planning approach to market sections of the planning phase. The module will take you through key considerations when specifying your requirements, determining which approach to market strategy is right for the procurement, evaluation methodology, what should go into the procurement plan and starting to think about the contract construct.

Module 2 should take about 30 minutes to complete.

Module 3: Source

Module 3 covers the sourcing phase of the procurement life-cycle, including approach to market; supplier selection and contract negotiation and award. The module will take you through what needs to go into your RFx documentation, publishing a notice of procurement, convening the evaluation panel and evaluating responses, negotiation theory, contract arrangements and debriefing unsuccessful respondents.

Module 3 should take about 50 minutes to complete.

Module 4: Manage

Module 4 covers the manage phase of the procurement life-cycle, including managing the contract and relationships and reviewing procurement outcomes. The module will take you through the three key elements of contract and relationship management, the relationship spectrum, dispute resolution considerations and the review cycle.

Module 4 should take about 25 minutes to complete.

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June 3, 2018 Leave a comment

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03.06.2018

Online Educational Course “Forecasting – Winter’s Models, Goodness of forecast, Aggregate Planning, Tabular Method”

by G. Srinivasan

Learn how aggregate planning is used in many businesses to match supply and demand of output over the medium time range of up to approximately 12 months in the future by studying the course Applied Operations Management – Aggregate Planning.

Aggregate planning allows management to quantify materials and other resources that are to be procured so that the total cost of operations are kept to the minimum over a set period of time. The course begins by introducing the concept of aggregate planning and its use in medium term planning in businesses. You will be introduced to aggregate planning methodologies such as the tabular method and linear programming.

You will learn how a tabular approach uses spreadsheets and the values of different variables, such as production by regular workforce and inventory levels can be calculated by using the costs associated with production, overtime, subcontracting, hiring, inventory and back-orders. The tabular method is widely used because it is easy to understand and utilize. However, the generated solution may not be optimal and many trials and errors may be needed to find the optimal solution. The course also introduces the linear programming technique and a special type of linear programming known as the Transportation Model, which can be used to obtain aggregate plans that would allow balanced capacity and demand and the minimization of costs.

This course will be of great interest to all professionals working in the areas operations management or general management who would like to learn more about aggregate planning and the methods used in this important area of operations management. The course will also be of interest to all learners who are interested in operations management as a future career.

The key points from this module are:

Forecasting can be defined as the estimate of future demand.

Aggregate planning is carried out once information about future demand is obtained from forecasting.

A poor Aggregate Plan can result in the following:
– Lost sales and profits if unable to meet demand
– A large amount of excess inventory and capacity which increases costs

The question ‘What should the production capacity be such that the total production cost is minimized?’ is known as the aggregate planning problem.

The following costs are used to calculate the minimum production capacity production cost:
– Regular Time cost
– Overtime cost
– Inventory cost
– Shortage cost

The formula for Total Capacity is:
Total Capacity = Regular Time Capacity + Overtime Capacity

Regular time production is assumed to be less costlier than overtime production. Back order cost can be defined as the cost of back ordering per unit per month. Increasing or decreasing the number of production employees does not affect the regular time production capacity.

Linear Programming

R(t) – Regular Time production used in time t
O(t) – Overtime production used in time t
D(t) – Demand during time t
S(t) – Shortage at the end of period t
U(t) – Under utilization in period t
H(t) – Number of people hired in period t
W(t) – Number of people working in period t
L(t) – Number of people laid off in period t

In the linear programming formulation ‘I(t)’ (the inventory at the end of the previous period) has to be defined as a unrestricted variable which can take positive value or a negative value. Linear programming is a method to achieve the best outcome (such as maximum profit or lowest cost) in a mathematical model whose requirements are represented by linear relationships. In aggregate planning the planning horizon is often divided into Periods. The physical resources of the company are assumed to be fixed during the planning horizon of interest.

The following help a company cope with demand fluctuations:

– Changing the size of the work force by hiring and firing.
– Varying the production rate by introducing overtime.
– Accumulating seasonal inventories.
– Planning backorders.

The following costs are relevant to aggregate production planning:
– Basic production costs
– Costs associated with changes in the production rate
– Inventory related costs

In aggregate production planning the following are examples of basic production costs
– Material costs
– Direct labor costs
– Overhead costs

In aggregate production planning the following are costs associated with changes in the production rate:
– Hiring costs
– Training costs
– Laying off personnel costs

In the Aggregate Planning Problem the following are examples of constraints:
– Limits on overtime
– Limits on layoffs
– Limits on capital available
– Limits on stockouts and backlogs

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June 3, 2018 Leave a comment

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03.06.2018

Online Educational Course “Inventory Models – Costs, EOQ Model”

by G. Srinivasan

Inventory Management – Using Inventory Models is the fourth in the Applied Operations Management series of courses. Inventory models help businesses answer the questions: How much material to order? When to order the material? They help firms determine the order quantity that minimizes the total inventory holding costs and ordering costs, as well as the frequency of ordering, to keep goods or services flowing to the customer without interruption or delay.

The course begins by introducing the basics of inventory management and introduces concepts such as deterministic demand and probabilistic demand, type of costs such as cost of item, order cost, and holding or carrying cost. Several models are available to help determine how much inventory should be brought in to restock the products or parts, and you will be introduced to inventory models such as the single period inventory model, the multi-period inventory model and the economic order quantity (EOQ) model. These models are explained in detail using worked examples.

This course will be of great interest to professionals working in the area of inventory management, procurement and operations management and who would like to learn more about using inventory models. The course will also be of interest to learners who are interested in a career in procurement or operations management.

The key points from this module are:

Economic order quantity (EOQ) model is the order quantity that minimizes the total inventory holding costs and ordering costs.

Several extensions can be made to the EOQ model developed by Mr. Pankaj Mane, including backordering costs and multiple items.

The EOQ model solves the “how much” and “when” aspects of ordering inventory. When inventory reaches the zero point, you order just enough to replenish your stock back to its original level.

You repeat this cycle throughout the year, never having to decide when to order or how much to order.

The EOQ model assumes that demand remains steady throughout the year and that inventory gets used at a fixed rate. If those assumptions hold true, you can order at the same time each month or quarter.

However, if demand fluctuates, you may run out of inventory sooner than you anticipate. You also may have to order more than you usually do to meet higher demand, or lower the order to adjust to declining demand.

The EOQ will sometimes change as a result of quantity discounts, which are provided by some suppliers as an incentive for customers to place larger orders.

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June 3, 2018 Leave a comment

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03.06.2018

Online Educational Course “Supply Chain Risk”

by N. Viswanadham

The course Understanding Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM) introduces the learner to the multitude of risks that threaten the operation of supply chains at national and global levels. A previous course – Understanding Supply Chain Ecosystems – looked at Supply Chain Ecosystems and supply risk involves adverse and unexpected changes to any elements of a supply chain ecosystem.

The aim of SCRM is to reduce supply chain vulnerability by identifying and managing risks within the supply chain and external to it. The course gives examples of resource uncertainties, characteristics of Wicked problems, and describes the elements of a cyber attack. It also lists the six strategies to reduce overall risk exposure.

This course will be of great interest to all professionals who work in the areas of operations management, logistics, procurement and information technology, and to all learners who are interested in developing a career in the area of supply chain management.

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03.06.2018

Online Educational Course “The Supply Chain Eco-System Framework”

by N. Viswanadham

Supply Chain Ecosystems are made up of a network of organizations, people, activities, information, and resources all of which are involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer.

The course begins by describing how modern supply chains have evolved into complex international networks, which can no longer be adequately described using the linear concept of a ‘chain’. The course then reviews how modern supply chain ecosystems now comprise of a network of companies, countries and their governments, social and political organisations, natural, industrial (clusters), financial and human resources, delivery infrastructure including logistics and IT, and knowledge of the industrial environment. You will learn how within these ecosystems, each configuration is unique to the particular enterprise that owns that supply chain.

This course will be of great interest to all professionals who work in the areas of operations management, logistics, procurement and information technology, and to all learners who are interested in developing a career in the area of supply chain management.

The key points from this module are:

The Ecosystem Model: A framework to visualize all Operational, Strategic, Management and Execution issues.

Ecosystems comprise of a network of:
Companies, countries and their governments, Social and political organisations
Natural, Industrial (clusters) and Financial and Human resources
Delivery infrastructure including logistics and IT
Connections, and knowledge of the industrial environment.
All interacting together with the landscape and climate (economic and industrial).

Supply chain ecosystems consist of:
Institutions
Resources
Delivery Services infrastructure
Supply Chain

Institutions:
Customs, Export and Other Govt. Regulators
Quality Control and Environmental issues
Social, Financial and Trade issues

Resources:
Infrastructure, Sea ports, Airports, Roads
Industry clusters
Human, Financial and Natural resources and labor unions

Delivery Services infrastructure:
Logistics and IT companies
Transport – Rail, Air, Ship, Road
Logistics parks, SEZs, Freight corridors

Supply Chain:
Retail chains
Distribution
Manufacturing
SuppliersDrivers of Supply Chain Competitiveness

Resources: Labour, Materials and Energy
Government policies and investments on institutional, environmental and infrastructural elements
Delivery mechanisms: Logistics and IT

SES Framework can hep to study:
Governance
Risk
Innovation
Performance

The Five STERM Forces:
Science research
New Technologies
New Engineering materials
Regulations and policies
New Management techniques

Modular Product:
– Made by appropriately combining different modules.
– Provides customers a number of options for each module and thus the product.
– Products differ from each other in terms of the subsets of modules assembled to produce them.

Modular Process:
– Each module undergoes a specified set of operations making it possible to outsource its manufacturing and inventory to them in a semi-finished form.

Part Standardization:
– Common parts are used across many processes
– Products redesigned as necessary

Process Standardization:
– Standardizing as much of the process as possible, making a generic or family product.
– Final product assembly delayed until the customer order is received (i.e. called “postponement”).

Modular Organization Designs

Modularization of product designs paves the way for similar modularization of organization designs facilitting coordination of activities via an “information structure” rather than managerial authority or hierarchy.

The codification of knowledge and standardization (through technical standards and design rules) of the interfaces between organizationally separate stages of production has made vertical specialization (organizational modularity) replace vertical integration.

Types of Resources

Classical economics define:>
– Natural resources
– Human resources
– Financial resources
– Capital assets

Modern view also includes:
– Knowledge, Intellectual property
– Social capital relationships with stake holders
– Management of high value delivery processes
Special Economic Zones (SEZs)

SEZ is a geographical region that has economic laws different from the rest of the country. The goal of SEZs is to attract foreign investments. SEZs have been established in many countries – China, India, Jordan, Poland, Philippines, Russia and North Korea. Indian SEZs are not as effective as those in China probably because they are not as focused.

Clusters

Clusters are geographic concentrations of interconnected companies, specialized suppliers, service providers, and associated institutions (universities, training) in a particular vertical.

Clusters allow companies to operate more productively in sourcing inputs; accessing inforamtion, technology and human resources.

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May 29, 2018 Leave a comment

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29.05.2018

Online Educational Course “Global Supply Chain ReDesign”

by N. Viswanadham

It is said that in today’s market, firms don’t compete, supply chains do, and supply chain design can give supply chains a competitive advantage over competing supply chains. The course begins by explaining what supply chain design is, the importance of supply chain design and the design process itself. You will learn how supply chains determine the ability of the businesses included in them to compete, and the design of their supply chains will affect their ability to compete in the marketplace. For example, a business that is attempting to compete in a market where low cost is paramount will have difficulty if it includes high cost suppliers in its supply chain.

This course will be of great interest to all professionals who work in the areas of operations management, logistics, procurement and information technology, and to all learners who are interested in developing a career in the area of supply chain management. Prerequisites: It is recommended that you have studied the courses ‘Introduction To Supply Chain Management – Revised 2018’, and ‘Understanding Supply Chain Ecosystems – Revised 2018’.

The key points from this module are:

Current day supply chain networks are subjected to disruptions and innovations in the ecosystem elements, resources and other factors.

Disruptions can originate from the banks, governments, bankruptcy of the supplier’s suppliers, natural disasters, piracy, cyber attacks, port strikes and other unknown factors.

Innovations in products, manufacturing and delivery processes, business models, government to government relations such as Free Trade Agreements, regulations and deregulations and many more affect the supply chain.

Global Supply Chain design involves two steps:

1) Global supply chain formation
2) Building Governance mechanisms or frameworks for partner selection, coordination and control

Global Supply Chain Formation:
1) Map the supply chain ecosystem for the industry vertical
2) Formulate the supply chain strategy
3) Select possible locations for the factories
4) Identify the supply chain risks
5) List the feasible supply chain configurations

The Governance Function involves:
Partner selection from group of pre-selected suppliers from Supply Chain Formation stage
Coordination – Determining who does what and when and communicating to everyone
Execution – Build a control tower to monitor order status so that processes work as per plan and control exceptional events

Business Model Innovation (BMI) is a reconfiguration of activities in the existing business model of a firm that is new to the product/service market in which the firm competes.

Clusters are geographic concentrations of interconnected companies, specialized suppliers, service providers, and associated institutions present in a region.

The proximity of companies and institutions in one location fosters better coordination and trust lowering the transactions costs, minimizing the inventory, importing costs and delays.

Types of Supplier Asset Specificity
Physical asset specificity refers to the mobile and physical features of assets such as specific dies, molds, and tooling for the manufacture of a contracted product.
Dedicated asset specificity represents discrete and/or additional investment in generalized production capacity in the expectation of making a significant sale of a product to a particular customer.
Human asset specificity arises in a learning-by-doing fashion through long-standing customer-specific operations.
Site asset specificity refers to the successive stages that are immobile and are located in close proximity to one another so as to economize on inventory and transportation.

Global Competitiveness Indicators – Based on which countries are evaluated include:

– National Policies for Openness in Trade and Markets
– Best Practices for International Trade
– Effective Legal and Enforcement Systems
– Infrastructures for a Global Economy
– Financial Services for Cross-Border Commerce
– Human Capital

Risks to supply chain ecosystems include all possible social, political and environmental risks that may affect the ecosystem and the flows of goods, information and finance.

Risks to Supply Chains:
– Outsourcing
– Mergers or acquisitions
– Large scale and a high degree of concentration
– Political and societal risk
– Resource intensive shortages

Transaction costs include:

Observable costs – Transport costs, import duties, customs tariffs and other formal trade barriers
Soft costs – Costs for information gathering, negotiation and monitoring contracts, trust building, networking, risk handling and mitigation, making up for cultural differences and miscommunication, compliance with safety regulations, labor laws etc.

Three characteristics of transactions affect the transaction costs:
– Asset specificity
– Uncertainty
– Frequency

Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) Theory:
When transaction cost are low, use the spot market governance
When transaction costs are high, hierarchy is efficient
Asset Specificity: Supply chain specific assets, Resources, Institutions, Delivery infrastructure.
Environmental uncertainty can come from suppliers, customers, competitors, regulatory agencies, unions or financial markets.

Frequency of interactions between the buyer and supplier is importance for reasons of economies of scale.

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