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Smartly Institute

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03.08.2018

Online Educational Course “Microeconomics 1: Supply and Demand”

Certificate.pdf

Introducing Microeconomics

Microeconomics: The study of how individuals, households, and firms make decisions about using limited resources.
Economic resources include:
Human resources: Workers and managers.
Nonhuman resources: Land, technology, minerals, oil, etc.
Microeconomists assume that people and firms are rational and seek to maximize benefits.
Trade-offs: Choosing one thing requires giving up another.
Scarcity: The existence of limited resources.
When an individual or group makes a decision, their opportunity cost is equal to the value of the foregone option(s).
Economic units: People, households, and firms.
Marginal benefits: Small, incremental benefits.

Supply and Demand

The law of demand: When the price of a good increases, demand for it decreases, and vice versa.
Demand schedule: Lists the quantity demanded of a product or service at various prices.
Market demand schedule: A demand schedule that encompasses the entire market’s demand for a good or service at various price points.
Demand curve (DC): Plots the quantity of a good or service demanded at different prices.
Market demand curve: Shows the market demand schedule.
When demand curves shift:
to the left—market demand has decreased.
to the right—market demand has increased.
Market price: The price at which a good or service is offered in the marketplace.
Law of supply: When the market price for a good increases, the quantity that suppliers produce and sell increases, and vice versa.
Supply schedule: Lists the quantity of a product supplied at various price points.
Supply curve (SC): Plots the supply schedule.
Market supply: The summation of all of the individual supplies of a good or service.
Market supply curve: Shows how the total quantity supplied of a good changes as its price changes.
When supply curves shift:
to the left—market supply has decreased.
to the right—market supply has increased.

Factors Contributing to Equilibrium

Equilibrium: When the amount of goods supplied is equal to the quantity demanded.
Equilibrium price: The price where equilibrium occurs ($9 on the chart).
Equilibrium quantity: The quantity where equilibrium occurs (400 on the chart).
Equilibrium point (EP): The point at which the equilibrium price is equal to the equilibrium quantity.
Price acts as a motivator:
When there is a low price for goods or services, consumers buy more and sellers supply less.
When there is a high price for goods or services, consumers buy less and sellers supply more.
Law of supply and demand: The price of any good will naturally adjust until market equilibrium is reached.
Supply > demand: There is a surplus. Prices will drop until equilibrium is met.
Demand > supply: There is a shortage. Prices will rise until equilibrium is met.
Supply = demand: The market has reached equilibrium.
To recognize events that alter equilibrium:
1. Identify a shift in the DC and/or the SC.
2. Determine if the curve(s) shift left or right.
3. Use a graph to see how the shifts change the EP.

Certificate

 

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